This article describes causes of numbness and tingling in the legs, feet or toes.
EVERYDAY CAUSES OF LEG NUMBNESS
Sitting With Legs Crossed
Sitting with legs crossed, sitting on the foot, prolonged sitting or squatting, or a wallet in a back pocket may be the cause of a pressure on the leg nerves or arteries resulting in leg falling asleepî:
Numbness, tingling or inability to move the leg or foot, resolving within few seconds or minutes after releasing the pressure and stretching the legs.
In extreme situations, prolonged leg crossing or other forceful leg position could cause prolonged or even permanent damage of the peroneal nerve.
Sciatica is a common name for lower back and leg pain, caused by any disorder involving sciatic nerve (listed below).
Common symptoms are:
Pain in the lower back and/or buttocks
Pain, numbness, tingling or weakness in the leg or foot, usually on one side, occasionally on both sides
Causes of sciatic pain:
Herniated Lumbar Disc
Bulging or herniated disc in the lumbar spine, mostly between 4th and 5th lumbar, or 5th lumbar and 1st sacral vertebra, can press on the roots of the sciatic nerve. A common cause is degenerative disc disease (DDD). A disc may herniate gradually or suddenly, often after lifting a heavy object from the ground. Symptoms include:
Pain, tingling or numbness in the lower back, buttock, thigh, calf or foot, usually only on one side
Worsening of symptoms during sitting, standing, sleeping and during certain movements, bending or lifting objects from the ground; symptoms may be relieved by walking or swimming
Cauda equina syndrome is typically caused by a large herniated lumbar disc that presses on the lumbar nerves. In the lumbar spine, the nerve roots and nerves are spread out like a ëhorseís tailí (in Latin cauda equina). Symptoms frequently appear on both sides: low back pain, bilateral lower extremity weakness, numbness around the anus and on the inner thighs (saddle anesthesia), bladder and bowel incontinence. These symptoms are a surgical emergency.
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
Spinal stenosis is narrowing of the spinal canal. It can be genetic but is usually due to an age related overgrowth of vertebral bone that narrows the spinal canal. Symptoms are like in herniated lumbar disc (see above).
Spondylolisthesis (Gk. spondylo = spine, listhesis = to slip or slide) refers to slippage (usually forward) of a vertebra and the spine above it. Disorder may be congenital, or caused by an age related degeneration, trauma or operative injury. Symptoms are like in herniated lumbar disc (see above).
The piriformis muscle, which is located in the lower part of the spine, can have spasms and compress the sciatic nerve thus causing low back pain.
Spinal Tumors and Infections
Tumors in the spine or spinal cord, and inflammation in infections, like spinal tuberculosis, can compress the sciatic nerve and cause sciatica and back pain.
During pregnancy, especially when lying down or walking, the womb can press on the sciatic nerve and can cause low back pain and tingling in one or both legs. Bulging or herniated disc is also a common cause. Symptoms usually go away after childbirth.
Leg Numbness After Surgery
Leg pain and numbness may appear after surgical fusion (merging) of the lumbar vertebra.
Broken Leg / Foot
Symptoms of a broken leg may include:
Pain, tenderness or cramps, made worse by movement
Leg or foot swelling
Leg deformity or grating of bone ends
Limited range of motion or inability to walk
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by a compression upon the posterior tibial nerve where it runs along the inner ankle. Causes include prolonged walking or wearing new shoes, injuries, swelling of tendons in rheumatoid arthritis, and so on. Symptoms include:
Foot pain, numbness, tingling or burning around the inner ankle or the sole of the foot, aggravated by standing or walking, and partially relieved by rest.
Restless Legs Syndrome
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder of an uncertain cause, in which you experience an irresistible urge to move your legs. Symptoms include:
Creeping, tugging, itching or pulling sensation in legs, worsening at rest and partially or completely resolving by moving legs
Symptoms worsen at evening and may disrupt sleep
Transverse myelitis is an inflammation of the whole width of one segment of the spinal cord. The exact cause is not known. It can occur at any age, but mainly affects people between 2o and 40 years of age. Symptoms may include:
Localized lower back pain
Burning, numbness, tingling or partial paralysis of both legs
Urinary bladder and bowel dysfunction
Headache, fever, and loss of appetite
Weakness in the arms
Multiple sclerosis can cause numbness or tingling in one or both legs, arms and other body parts. Problems with vision, hearing, urinating, and tiredness are other common symptoms.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a rare hereditary disease of nerves causing weakness and decreased sensation in the legs (and sometimes in the arms). Symptoms include:
Loss of muscles and weakness in your legs and feet
High foot arches
Curled toes (hammertoes)
Numbness and pain in your legs and feet
DIAGNOSIS OF LEG NUMBNESS AND TINGLING
History. Pain, starting in the back and radiating to the leg, is mostly caused by a pressure on the roots of the sciatic nerve (radiculopathy), occurring in spinal disorders. Check a medical history questionnaire to recall more symptoms and circumstances.
Clinical examination. Special ambulatory tests, including detailed checking of sensitivity in the leg can reveal which nerves are involved.
Investigations. MRI of the spine shows most of spinal disorders. X-ray can show broken bones in the leg.